DESCRIPTION: TELLS HOW TO CUT BEAUTIFUL DESIGNS AND
LETTERS INTO METAL. DESCRIBES TOOLS, CUTTING LETTERS,
ENGRAVING, INSCRIPTIONS, FLOWER LEAFS, ENGRAVING IN
METAL, IVORY AND OTHER MATERIALS. REPRINTED FROM AN
In cutting the capital N it will be seen that the two hair lines, which are nearly the form of lines of beauty, are made almost parallel with each other, and the main shade stroke is nearly perpendicular. In the case of the one shown in our cut at Fig. 67 we have purposely made this stroke exactly perpendicular, showing the student that if he aims to get it perpendicular he will avoid the tendency to running the hair line at the right of the the main stroke into the main stroke at the the bottom of the line or just before reaching the bottom guide line. While we here illustrate this stroke perfectly perpendicular, the student while practicing should bear in mind that if it should be or can be on an angle of five or ten degrees to the right it will be more artistic than if made perfectly perpendicular.
In forming the capital 0 it will be seen that we have changed the style of the O somewhat from the old style of Spencerian 0, in which case the inner line at the left was cut nearer parallel with the outer one. In this case we have shortened the length of the loop forming the middle or right portion of the letter, and have thrown the highest point of the letter over to the right to counterbalance the diminishing of said loop.
Capital P is formed the same as like portions of a capital B, excepting that the loop at the right of the line of beauty crosses the capital stem. Even this is not true in some cases. Some artists prefer to have the loop slightly curve around upward at the right of the line of beauty. This is a matter that the artist should decide for himself. The point of meeting of such loop and line of beauty should be nearly midway between the top and bottom of the letter.
Forming capital Q, the loop at the top comes down to the middle guide line. The stroke at the base of the letter is cut over where it crosses the main stroke of the letter to the end of the loop at the left, and from the beginning of such cut to the right at the end of the loop at the right, which terminates a hair line. This loop, in other words, is cut the same as the base line of the capital L, excepting that the loop at the left of the main line is fuller than the loop of the L. It matters not if this loop is begun where the shade commences to appear to the right, making it all one stroke, and then finishing it up from such beginning to the end of the loop by cutting in the opposite direction.
The student may wonder why it is necessary to cut this loop to the left. He may think that it should be cut by beginning in the center of the loop and cutting this stroke all the way over to the right, but a trial will convince him that the end of the loop would appear very ragged if cut in this way. In other words, we must return to our original instructions with reference to forming loops and the use of the square graver, which taught us that we must cut all curves to the right, and if the student will bear in mind this valuable point all through his engraving he will find that he will never be troubled to know in which direction to cut a loop.
The first half of the R is formed the same as the B, and the lower right half of the letter is formed the same as the K.
The capital S is a difficult letter to cut, yet a very simple letter in its formation. The loop at the top protruding over to the right without any loop at the base to counterbalance it, confuses the student in designing or even in cutting it. A good practice to assure getting this line of beauty on the correct angle is to design the loop on an angle of about 10 degrees higher than any other line of beauty, which will be sufficient to counterbalance the optical illusion referred to.
The capital T is formed the same as the capital F, excepting that it is not crossed. The first main stroke of the capital U is a double cut, the upper half being cut upward and the lower half downward. The loop at the left of this stroke is cut the same as the like loop in the capitals R, P or B. The second main stroke of the capital U is cut downward, and is the same width from beginning to end, and is squared up at the top when necessary.
TABLE OF CONTENTS:1. Introductory