Website of our products

Return to index


Plating Tankpicture1

Electroplating Forum

Cadillac Shop Manuals

Buick Shop Manuals

Cadillac Owner's Manuals

Cadillac Prestige Color Catalogs




tank heaters




































































































































































Electroplating Theory 1

Most inorganic (non living matter) and some organic chemical compounds in a molten state or dissolved in water become ionized, that is, their molecules become disassociated into positively and negatively charged components which have the ability to conduct an electric current through the medium in which they are suspended. If a pair of electrodes (positive and negative terminals, such as in a car battery) are placed in a solution of an electrolyte (chemicals dissolved in a medium such as water) and a source of direct current is connected between them, the positive ions in the solution will move toward the negative electrode and the negative ions will move toward the positive electrode (like in a magnet). Upon reaching the electrodes the ions will gain or lose electrons and be transformed into neutral atoms.
Electroplating is performed when the workpiece is placed in an electrolyte, usually called a bath, that has the coating metal dissolved in it. These metals are called salts. A salt is the product of an acid or base and a metal. Thus if you put nickel in sulfuric acid, you get nickel sulfate, if you put nickel in hydrochloric acid, you get nickel chloride. Copper introduced to cyanide, a strong base, will produce copper cyanide. The goal in electroplating is to tear apart these salt molecules, liberate the metal component, and deposit it on the workpiece. The two atoms, i.e., nickel and sulfur in a molecule of nickel sulfate (it also contains oxygen) are held together by opposite electrical charges (opposites attract). Dissolving nickel sulfate in water and introducing a positive and negative current into the water will, if sufficiently strong, overcome the attraction of the nickel and sulfur to each other and attract the nickel to the cathode (negative terminal) and the sulfur molecule would be attracted to the anode (positive terminal) except that it is so reactive or unstable, it will combine with other elements in the bath before it makes it over to the anode.
Examples of electroplating metal salts include nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, chromium trioxide, cadmium oxide. These are obtained in powder or liquid form and are mixed into the plating bath water to create the electrolyte.
The workpiece is connected to the negative terminal of an external source of direct current electricity or cathode. This is said to make the workpiece cathodic. Why is direct current only used in electroplating? Alternating current reverses polarity many times a second. The metal ion would be alternately attracted and repulsed to and from the workpiece and little or no plating would take place.
The positive side of the current is supplied to the bath by insertion of the anode. In electroplating, a steady direct current of low voltage, usually 1-6 volts is used. When the current is passed through the solution or electrolyte, ions of the plating metal, i.e., nickel, chromium, deposit out of the bath and onto the cathode, or workpiece. These ions are replaced in the bath by periodic additions of the metal salt to the bath or by corrosion of the anode. A brief example: if the salt copper sulfate is dissolved in water, it disassociates into positive copper ions and negative sulfate ions. When a voltage is applied to the electrodes, the positive copper ions move to the negative electrode, are discharged onto it as metallic copper. The sulfate ions, now that they are separated from the copper ions, are unstable (highly reactive) and combine with the hydrogen in the water of the solution to form sulfuric acid and oxygen. Such action caused by an electric current is called electrolysis. The quantity of material transformed at each electrode is proportional to the quantity of electricity passed through the electrolyte.

TITLE: HOBBYIST ELECTROPLATING MADE EASY- 3 day special! Get paperback or save money and time with an instant download!

For paperback, click on this Paypal button:($11)
for instant download click on this button:($6)

Add to Cart

  • LIST PRICE: $8.00 + $3.00 s/h for paperback, or $6.00 FOR INSTANT
  • PAGES: 70
  • ISBN: 1-877767-00-X
  • This is a 70 page book It teaches the process of plating chrome, nickel, and gold on small objects, using homemade equipment that will only cost a few dollars. It has hard to find plating bath formulas. Describes metal preparation for plating. It does not assume prior knowledge and the entire electroplating process is demonstrated so anyone can follow and understand. Also gives formulas for plating zinc, brass, silver, copper, and protective coatings, in addition to chrome, nickel, and gold. Thousands sold. Learn this process and go into business for yourself.

    PLATING KIT---Hobbyist Electroplating book from above, + 2 Dry oz. Nickel Powder + Anode! Only $20.00 + Priority shipping ($5.50)

    Our best selling plating book,described above, plus now, get plating right away! With the book, you get 2+ ounces nickel plating chemicals,dry weight, plus a nickel anode, 99% pure nickel!We give you the stuff that is hard to find or expensive at a very affordable price, and you can plate items immediately, or use it as an instructional kit to see if you want to take plating further. You can supply the battery and wires/clips yourself and save lots of money! Add warm, distilled water to the nickel chemical, and you are ready to plate! Why buy the liquid solution from others that is mostly water? We tell you what is in it! Quick instructions included, or read the book first. Cheapest price for instructions/chemicals anywhere in the world! The vat in the photo is for demo purposes only and does not come with the kit. Get your own vats at Wal Mart.























    email goldhat